The Invisible Infrastructureby Steven R. Kramer, P.E., (M.ASCE), Principal; Jason Consulting Int. Inc., Washington, DC,
Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1998, Vol. 68, Issue 10, Pg. 48-51
Document Type: Feature article
Most developed countries have 50- to 100-year-old underground utility systems that carry far greater loads than their designs. They're difficult to repair or replace, yet they're under increasing strain. Trenchless technologies—once considered an innovation—are now becoming more common as designers seek to keep older infrastructure running smoothly. There are two common trenchless methods, guided directional drilling and microtunneling/pipe jacking. Each has its own best uses and unique set of benefits.
Subject Headings: Infrastructure | Trenchless technology | Strain | Load factors | Buried pipes | Lifeline systems | Underground structures | Innovation
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