Risk Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment and Supply Facilities Handling Highly Hazardous Chemicalsby Krishna Nand,
Abstract: Due to increasing public concern of risks from handling highly hazardous chemicals at various facilities, a number of state regulatory agencies, including the State of California, have enacted regulations requiring the facilities handling these chemicals to perform accidental risk analysis and develop Risk Management and Prevention Plans. Similar legislation has also been enacted nationwide as a part of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for the development of Process Safety Management and Risk Management Plans. Process Hazard Analysis and Consequence Analysis are the two major components of all the three regulations. The performance of these analyses and the risk analysis for facilities treating drinking water supplies with chlorine is discussed. It was determined that implementation of cost-effective safety (mitigation) measures could lead to significant risk reduction. However, in some instances, such as when the treatment facilities were located in residential areas, close to schools and hospitals, risks from the use of anhydrous chlorine were identified to be unacceptable. In these cases, it was found that replacement of chlorine with a less hazardous material, such as sodium hypochiorite, was more appropriate.
Subject Headings: Risk management | Water supply systems | Chemical treatment | Water treatment plants | Hazardous wastes | Drinking water | Chlorine | Health care facilities | Safety | Public buildings | North America | California | United States
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