Comparison of Biological and Chemical/Physical Iron Removal

by Charlotte D. Smith, Charlotte Smith Utility Services, Inc, Collegeville, United States,
James F. Smith, Charlotte Smith Utility Services, Inc, Collegeville, United States,



Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Critical Issues in Water and Wastewater Treatment

Abstract: The report compares the efficiency of chemical/physical and biological iron removal processes during the entire filter cycle. The results of the first three pilot studies performed in the United States indicate that biological iron removal will reduce the iron concentration of groundwater to less then 0.05 mg/L at flow rates of at least 8.0 gpm/sq ft. The high rate filtration, allows for lower capital costs, and less space requirements.

Subject Headings: Iron compounds | Biological processes | Water pollution | Comparative studies | Water quality | Water conservation | Chemical processes | Filters | North America | United States

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