The Relationship of Speciation to Iron and Manganese Removal Strategiesby Kenneth Carlson, Fort Collins Water Utility, Fort Collins, United States,
William Knocke, Fort Collins Water Utility, Fort Collins, United States,
Kevin Gertig, Fort Collins Water Utility, Fort Collins, United States,
Abstract: Case studies are presented describing how Fe and Mn speciation procedures were used to solve process problems at two water utilities. A series of filtration steps are used to separate these metals into soluble, colloidal and particulate fractions. The species of manganese present in one water source is shown to be dependent on the biogeochemical cycle in the reservoir. The natural oxidation and reduction of Mn was found to be microbially mediated and the application of KMnO4 was adjusted to account for this cycle. A groundwater treatment plant was suffering from a high amount of Fe coming off the filters. The problem was identified as inadequate solids capture and not the oxidant dose allowing a quick solution. Enhanced oxidation of Mn with Cl2 was postulated to be due to an association with Fe oxide particles.
Subject Headings: Water treatment plants | Chemical treatment | Manganese | Oxidation | Case studies | Water supply systems | Filtration | Reservoirs
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