Modeling Bottom Friction in Wind-Wave Modelsby Hendrik L. Tolman, Marine Prediction Branch, Camp Springs, United States,
Abstract: Effects of bottom friction in wind-wave models are investigated, with an emphasis on wave-induced bottom roughnesses (moveable-bed effects). A state-of-the-art bottom friction model is defined, based on literature. An analysis of this model indicates that, initial ripple-formation is important for swell propagation, but that moveable-bed effects are less important for depth-limited wind-seas. The small spatial decay scales associated with swell call for a sub-grid approach in (large-scale) numerical models. A sub-grid model is developed and applied successfully to swell and wind-sea cases, removing (unrealistically) large effects of sediment parameters in the later cases. Finally, implications for wave observations and sediment transport are discussed briefly.
Subject Headings: Wind waves | Numerical models | Mathematical models | Friction | Wind engineering | Water waves | Sediment transport | Hydrologic models
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