Equations to Predict Critical Submergence at Horizontal Hydraulic Intakesby John E. Hite, Jr., U.S. Army Engineer Waterways, Experiment Station, Vicksburg, United States,
Walter C. Mih, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways, Experiment Station, Vicksburg, United States,
Abstract: The formation of free surface vortices at hydraulic intakes can disrupt operation and damage machinery. It is also a serious safety concern. Theoretical investigations and laboratory tests were conducted on the free surface vortices and the critical submergence at a horizontal intake with and without a protruding pier. Critical submergence is defined as the intake submergence when the air-core from a free surface vortex initially enters the intake. Protruding piers at various locations in the vicinity of the intake were tested to determine their effects on critical submergence. Equations have been developed to predict the critical submergence with and without pier protrusions. These equations will aid the design engineer in evaluating vortex formation and required critical submergence at prototype intakes with similar geometry and flow conditions.
Subject Headings: Water intakes | Vortices | Submerging | Piers | Free surfaces | Submerged flow | Hydraulic models | Equipment and machinery
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