A Comparative Analysis of Multiple-Use Coastal and Ocean Management Techniques in Marine Protected Areasby Paul C. Ticco, Univ of Delaware, Newark, United States,
Abstract: Many coastal and ocean areas worldwide have been designated for protection and management through the establishment of national, regional, or international marine protected areas(MPAs). Although the management of MPAs usually focuses on one dominant use or intention, the existence of competing users often demonstrate the need for multiple-use management. When appropriate to utilize, this approach may promote the maximum employment of possible uses while providing for the prevention of conflicts over space, time, and resources. For example, despite the predominant emphasis in most MPAs, management may also concentrate upon cultural,historic, and socio-economic concerns of the nations and people directly affected by the area's designation. With proper controls and planning some protected areas may accommodate several non-interfering uses without compromising the protection of natural ecosystems or habitats. This can lead, thus, to long-term sustainable resource management. A number of ocean management techniques exist to address the potential dilemma of multiple uses within marine protected areas. Chief among these are the establishment of zones of activity ( or non-activity). Although ocean processes do not respect human jurisdictional boundaries, and biological communities and resources are not uniformly distributes within the large-scale marine system, the use of zone strives to create a management system that meets multiple objectives while maintaining the ecological integrity of an area. Several successful and non-successful multiple-use MPA management plans that utilize zoning are currently in place and can be compared.
Subject Headings: Ocean engineering | Coastal management | Ecosystems | Resource management | Biological processes | Systems management | Employment | Space colonies
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