Carbon-14: Some Evidence of Migration and Experiments on Immobilisation

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by E. B. Anderson, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
N. N. Kalinin, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
Yu. V. Kuznetsov, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,
A. A. Rimski-Korsakov, V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst, St. Petersburg, Russia,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: High Level Radioactive Waste Management 1993:

Abstract: Carbon-14 that is produced in nuclear reactors by reactions on C, N and O is one of the most biologically dangerous nuclides that are subject to global dispersion (H-3, 85-Kr, 129-I). It is assumed that about 20-30% of C-14 is released at atmosphere from NPPs and 80-70% remains in the fuel and will be released during reprocessing. Atmospheric dispersion of C-14 in the form of carbon dioxide cannot go without consequence for the environment, particularly for the vegetation. This influence of the carbon-14 release from a radio-chemical facility in Russia on the nearby forest is illustrated in the first part of the report by data on C-14 concentration in the barks of trees, analysed year by year and showing yearly variation of C-14 releases. The second part of the report deals with the study of stability of portland-cement compounds and Ca, Ba and Sr carbonates to the leaching processes. Leaching tests were done on specially prepared samples of compounds, containing various (from 30% to 70%) concentrations of Ca, Sr or Ba carbonates, tagged by C-14. Distilled water was used as leaching agent. Leaching was conducted for 46 hours and C-14 concentrations and pH of resulting waters were monitored. Differential leaching rates and leaching coefficients were analysed and general compound behaviour and its dynamics has been observed.

Subject Headings: Carbon | Leaching | Nuclear reactors | Carbonation | Waste treatment | Water management | Radioactive wastes | Carbon fibers | Russia

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