Advances in Shotcrete Technology for Support of Underground Openings in Canadaby D. R. Morgan, Hardy BBT Ltd, Burnaby, Canada,
Abstract: This paper presents a broad overview of the state-of-the-art of shotcrete technology for support of underground openings in Canada. Advances in shotcrete technology such as the introduction and use of steel fibre reinforcement (in lieu of conventional wire mesh reinforcement) and silica fume, in both wet and dry-mix shotcrete are reviewed. Shotcrete mix design procedures and batching, mixing, supply and application procedures are examined. Typical performance characteristics and properties of both plastic and hardened shotcrete are described. Examples of the use of shotcrete for support of underground openings in tunneling and mining applications in Canada are presented.
Subject Headings: Shotcrete | Materials processing | Underground structures | Mines and mining | Tunneling | Plasticity | Steel fibers | North America | Canada
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