Design and Application of Integrated Shotcrete Linings for Underground Openings in Weak Rock Massesby John C. Sharp, Consultant in Rock Engineering; Jersey, United Kingdom,
Abstract: Tunnels and caverns excavated in weak rock masses require special consideration in terms of shotcrete lining design. Shotcrete as a support medium for weak rock provides major benefits in terms of three main functions: Application of immediate rock support following excavation, continuous over the excavated profile. Provision of an integration system between the excavation surface and the primary reinforcement or support elements. Provision of moisture content control to the excavation surface to inhibit drying out and potential strength and strain changes. The paper covers the technical requirements of shotcrete systems applicable to weak rock masses and illustrates the central role of shotcrete as a structural integration system for a wide variety of support and reinforcement measures. Particular emphasis is given to rock reinforcement - shotcrete usage and to the use of different arch rib systems. Examples of shotcrete application in weak rocks are provided to illustrate the design principles given.
Subject Headings: Rock masses | Shotcrete | Excavation | Linings | Rocks | Structural systems | Tunnels
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