Unconfined Granular Materials Thermalized by Fluctuating Horizontal Surfacesby Mark W. Richman, Worcester Polytechnic Inst, Worcester, United States,
Richard E. Martin, Worcester Polytechnic Inst, Worcester, United States,
Abstract: We calculate the solid fraction and granular temperature throughout assemblies of identical, smooth, inelastic spheres that are unconfined from above and thermalized from below by bumpy, horizontal surfaces that randomly fluctuate about zero mean velocity. Our analysis is based on a kinetic constitutive theory and conditions that include the effects of boundary vibrations on the energy transferred to the spheres. As the fluctuation speed of the boundary increases, a mass of material becomes deeper, more dilute, and more thermalized.
Subject Headings: Granular materials | Thermal effects | Spheres | Domain boundary | Flow measurement | Fluid flow | Temperature measurement | Solid mechanics
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