Use of Piezoceramic Bender Elements in Soil Dynamics Testingby W. B. Gohl, Hardy BBT Ltd, Burnaby, Canada,
W. D. L. Finn, Hardy BBT Ltd, Burnaby, Canada,
Abstract: The use of piezoceramic bender elements is described to measure small strain, shear wave velocity distributions in soil models used in centrifuge and shake table testing. Experimental procedures used are discussed as well as possible measurement errors. Shear wave velocity distributions measured in dry sand are found to agree reasonably closely with predictions made using an equation proposed by Hardin and Black (1968). Theoretical aspects of bender response to travelling waves are also discussed. Consideration of near field effects and the location of the source relative to the receiver leads to the conclusion that a horizontal shear source (the bender element) can produce both P and S waves, and that measurement of P wave velocities can also be made using the bender element technique.
Subject Headings: Soil dynamics | Shear waves | Wave velocity | Wave measurement | Velocity distribution | Piezoelectricity | Shear stress
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