Grass Reference Measurements in Italyby Emanuele Tarantino, Univ of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy,
Abstract: In this paper, the description and the use of drainage and weighing lysimeters installed in different Italian locations are reported together with the results of the researches about the comparisons between measured grass evapotranspiration reference crop (ETc fescue or rye-grass) and evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated by the FAO methods (Blaney-Criddle, Radiation, Penman and 'Class A' pan evaporation) and in some cases by the Penman-Monteith and Thornthwaite methods. Comparisons were made on a daily basis with weighing lysimeters and on ten-day basis with drainage lysimeters. In general, FAO modifications improved the ETo estimations except with Penman method which fitted less well, especially in humid areas and in winter months. Penman-Monteith method, tested only in one location in southern Italy, gave similar or even worse results as compared with the other methods, probably because of the use of badly estimated empirical canopy and aerodynamic resistance values. Finally, the pan evaporation method gave varied results in the different locations.
Subject Headings: Measuring instruments | Vegetation | Drainage | Evapotranspiration | Crops | Comparative studies | Construction methods | Italy | Europe
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