Effect on Soil and Groundwater Due to Long-Term Land Treatmentby Dante J. Tedaldi, Bechtel Environmental Inc, San Francisco, United States,
Abstract: A comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact of a full-scale, operating overland flow (OLF) land treatment system was made of the Campbell Soup, Inc. OLF system in Paris, Texas. Field samples of soil, wastewater, OLF runoff, and groundwater collected during the study and detailed long-term process records maintained by Campbell Soup were used as part of the evaluation. A leaky-confined aquifer of moderate salinity was found below the site. Field data and calculations indicated that the evapotranspirative concentration of salts in the applied wastewater would be insufficient to produce the measured concentrations in the groundwater. A pattern of increasing ionic concentration over time (1968 to 1989) with relatively small changes in ionic ratios suggested a trend toward the dissolution and concentration of naturally present minerals (such as gypsum and sodium chloride) in the relatively slow moving groundwater. The development of the slightly saline, semiconfined aquifer was strongly suggested by the groundwater geochemical data, soil data, the estimated rate of infiltration, field hydraulic conductivity and water level measurements, and the magnitude of the volume of wastewater applied.
Subject Headings: Soil treatment | Groundwater | Water resources | Salt water | Water quality | Water treatment | Aquifers | Field tests | Paris | North America | France | Texas | Europe | United States
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