Sediment Transport, Hydraulic Retention Devices, and Aquatic Habitat in Sand-Bed Channelsby Nani G. Bhowmik, Illinois State Water Survey, Champagin, United States,
J. Rodger Adams, Illinois State Water Survey, Champagin, United States,
Abstract: Streams and rivers of all sizes and in all parts of the United States flow on sand-bed channels. Scour, Transport, and deposition of sediments particles are natural processes in these streams and rivers. Any change in the amount or size distribution of the material available for transport can affect the composition of the river bed, while scour or deposition can change the bathymetry of river. Hydraulic engineers have tended to view changes in the natural processes of sediment supply and transport as inevitable results of building bridge, dam, or channel training projects. Aquatic ecologists have tended to view any change in sediment transport conditions as a threat to the quality of the riverine ecosystem. Due to various transport processes and morphological characteristics, sand-bed channels create retention and detention devices that could be quite beneficial to the aquatic habitats of riverine environment. Examples and case studies of variety of habitats in sand-bed streams are depicted. In small streams, longitudinal features such as pools and riffles define the major habitat types. In large rivers, lateral features such as side channels, shallow-point bars, and bed forms such as dunes and sand waves provide a variety of habitat types.
Subject Headings: Sediment transport | Bed materials | Hydraulics | Aquatic habitats | Soil properties | Channel flow | North America | United States
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