Secondary-Flow Correction for Depth-Averaged Numerical Modelsby Robert S. Bernard, US Army Engineer Waterways, Experiment Station, Vicksburg, United States,
Abstract: An empirical equation is proposed for the production and transport of secondary (streamwise) vorticity induced by lateral curvature in shallow water. The streamwise vorticity creates a shear stress that transports momentum normal to the primary direction of flow, and this can alter considerably the depth-averaged distribution of velocity. The secondary shear stress represents a mild three-dimensional (3D) correction, which is suitable for use in two-dimensional (2D) numerical models. It is applicable for depth-averaged flow calculations over gentle topography when the local radius of curvature is large compared with the depth.
Subject Headings: Shear stress | Numerical models | Mathematical models | Fluid flow | Three-dimensional models | Two-dimensional models | Water flow | Curvature
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