The European UndergroundSerial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1988, Vol. 58, Issue 1, Pg. 40-42
Document Type: Feature article
Three tunneling projects in Europe are described: a tunnel bored under two rivers in Lyon, France, a subway station constructed as a mined tunnel in Vienna, Austria and a tunnel mined with the help of ground freezing, also in Vienna. All projects used state of the art tunneling procedures and are examples that will be copied as engineers tunnel in areas and through soils that were previously classified as cut-and-cover only. The Lyon tunnel was bored by a three-in-one tunneling machine that cut, supported, and lined as it proceeded forward. Both Vienna projects employed the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), that incorporates the surrounding soils as a structural element.
Subject Headings: Tunneling | Soil classification | Equipment and machinery | Soil structures | Subways | Frozen soils | Rivers and streams | Europe | Austria | Vienna | France
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