Composite Resistance to Flow With an Ice Coverby G. R. Alger, Michigan Technological Univ, Houghton, MI, USA,
H. S. Santeford, Michigan Technological Univ, Houghton, MI, USA,
Abstract: Recent data collected on several rivers in Michigan suggest, with only an ice cover present, that Manning's roughness ratio is constant at n//R equals 0. 65. If other ice deposits occur during the freeze-up period apparent roughness will be higher but will decrease with time approaching the ratio of 0. 65.
Subject Headings: Flow resistance | Ice | Load and resistance factor design | Composite materials | Hydraulic roughness | Streamflow | Rivers and streams | Freezing | Data collection | Hydrologic data | Michigan | North America | United States
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