Composite Resistance to Flow With an Ice Cover

by G. R. Alger, Michigan Technological Univ, Houghton, MI, USA,
H. S. Santeford, Michigan Technological Univ, Houghton, MI, USA,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Hydraulic Engineering


Recent data collected on several rivers in Michigan suggest, with only an ice cover present, that Manning's roughness ratio is constant at n//R equals 0. 65. If other ice deposits occur during the freeze-up period apparent roughness will be higher but will decrease with time approaching the ratio of 0. 65.

Subject Headings: Composite materials | Ice | Streamflow | Flow resistance | Hydrologic data | Rivers and streams | Freezing | Waterways | Michigan | United States

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