Offsite Habitat Mitigation Banking: The Port of Long Beach Experienceby Geraldine Knatz, Port of Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA,
Abstract: Since 1981, the Port of Long Beach has been involved in developing and constructing habitat enhancement projects outside of the Port's jurisdiction as mitigation for port landfill development projects. This paper summarizes the Port of Long Beach's experiences in pursuing development of an artificial reef and restoration of two wetlands in Southern California. Technical issues addressed include determining the size of the habitat enhancement project required to mitigate for the port development and establishing a mechanism for 'banking' excess habitat values created by wetland restorations to be used for future port landfills. Cost comparisons are made between the different mitigation projects and port landfill development projects. Future needs of the port for additional sites to enhance habitat values are examined in light of the scarcity of potential wetland enhancement projects in Southern California.
Subject Headings: Ports and harbors | Wetlands (coastal) | Beaches | Coastal management | Ecological restoration | Landfills | Construction sites | Reefs and sills | Light rail transit | California | North America | United States
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