Lab Measurements of Gmax Using Bender Elementsby Rune Dyvik,
Abstract: This paper describes in detail the installation and use of piezoceramic bender elements in a variety of standard geotechnical laboratory testing equipment at NGI (e. g. , triaxial, direct simple shear and oedometer devices). These bender elements enable one to measure G//m//a//x of the specimens during consolidation and/or shear in any of these tests. For purposes of comparison, piezoceramic bender elements were installed in a resonant column device (Hardin oscillator). Simultaneous measurements of G//m//a//x were taken on five different clays at different confining stress levels and durations both for loading and unloading.
Subject Headings: Soil modulus | Soil dynamics | Soil stress | Soil analysis | Soil strength | Piezoelectricity | Shear modulus | Shear strength
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