Behavior of Cavity Masonry Walls Under Out-of-Plane Lateral Loading: An Analytical Approachby Ahmad A. Hamid, Drexel Univ, Philadelphia, PA, USA,
Fred A. Carruolo, Drexel Univ, Philadelphia, PA, USA,
Abstract: In this paper, a finite element model is used to analyze cavity walls in an attempt to understand their complex behavior and to evaluate the adequacy of the assumptions embodied in the current simplified design approach. The model accounts for material orthotropy and considers different geometric properties and boundary conditions to study wall deflections, tie forces and wall moments and stresses. The results show that boundary conditions of the two wythes have a significant effect on wall behavior and that load transfer and tie forces are not uniform.
Subject Headings: Material properties | Walls | Lateral loads | Finite element method | Masonry | Cavitation | Load transfer
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