Thermal Plume Model for Demonstrating Compliance

by Dave A. McIntosh, TVA, Water Systems Development, Branch, Norris, TN, USA,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Hydraulics and Hydrology in the Small Computer Age


A numerical model that simulates the discharge of heated water from a multiport line diffuser to a thermally stratified, flowing environment was developed. The model solves the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations. A solution of this set of first-order, differential equations is achieved using the Runge-Kutta method of integration. The entrainment approach is used to attain closure of the governing equations. Six field studies were performed to estimate the entrainment coefficient and to capture any dependence it may have on ambient flows and/or thermal stratification. A relation for estimating the entrainment coefficient was developed from the field data and made a part of the numerical model.

Subject Headings: Thermal analysis | Entrainment | Field tests | Plumes | Thermal pollution | Water pollution | Water discharge | Diffusion (thermal)

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