Clay Pipe Installation—Advances in Load Factors

by Edward J. Sikora, Natl Clay Pipe Inst, Technical, Services, Crystal Lake, IL, USA,

Document Type: Proceeding Paper

Part of: Advances in Underground Pipeline Engineering


This report presents an evaluation of traditional load factor values for clay pipe and the development of a new bedding system which gives a higher load factor. Tests demonstrate that vitrified clay pipe responds to load in a predictable manner and that strain gauges accurately indicate the location, direction and magnitude of the stresses present in the loaded body. Bedding Classes B, C and D, as described in the Clay Pipe Engineering Manual, were evaluated. The benefits of shovel-slicing are demonstrated. Although most clay pipe installations are safely installed in Class D, C or B beddings, there are instances where greater field supporting strength is necessary. Recognizing this need, a field test program was undertaken to determine if certain time consuming and costly installation practices involving the use of concrete could be replaced by the use of a granular bedding system.

Subject Headings: Load factors | Clays | Pipelines | Design/Build | Soil strength | Load tests | Soil tests | Soil stress

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