International and Educational Aspects of Watershed Managementby Martin M. Fogel, Univ of Arizona, Sch of Renewable, Natural Resources, Tucson, AZ, USA,
Abstract: International donor agencies involved in furnishing technical and economic assistance for increasing food and fiber production are focusing their attention towards rain-fed agricultural rather large-scale irrigation projects. In many Third World countries, population pressures are forcing people to cut down upland forested areas and grow agricultural crops. Unless erosion of these fertile land areas are controlled, the lands remain relatively productive for only a few years. In addition, sediment inflow to the major streams and tributaries tends to hinder the operation of downstream irrigation systems. Two case studies, one in the Philippines and the other in Jordan, are presented to illustrate the extent of the problem. Watershed management through the use of engineering, employing local materials wherever possible, and vegetative measures are suggested as solutions to the problem.
Subject Headings: Watersheds | Water resources | Agriculture | Developing countries | Irrigation systems | Materials engineering | Rivers and streams | Case studies | Jordan | Philippines | Middle East
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