Alternative Layouts for Hydro Headrace Tunnelsby Richard W. Everett, Tudor Engineering Co, San Francisco, CA, USA,
Abstract: The recent development of tunnel boring machines capable of excavating hard rock at virtually any grade together with the Norwegian experience in compressed air surge tanks provides the opportunity to introduce new layouts for hydro plant headrace tunnels. The state of the art and experience gained in the construction of nominally unlined conduits driven through hard rock with tunnel boring machines, and with compressed air surge tanks at the downstream end of the conduit is reviewed. The use of rail locomotion for construction transportation in tunnels with grades greater than the usual 2 to 3% is discussed.
Subject Headings: Tunnels | Construction equipment | Rail transportation | Rocks | Water storage | Water tanks | Boring | Compression
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