Hydraulics of Freeze-upby Henry S. Santeford, Michigan Technological Univ, Dep of, Civil Engineering, Houghton, MI, USA,
George R. Alger, Michigan Technological Univ, Dep of, Civil Engineering, Houghton, MI, USA,
Abstract: A classification scheme for freeze-up of a river is proposed based upon the response of indicated stage. A conceptual model is developed to describe the course of the indicated responses. The model suggests that the indicated response in stage is directly related to: the degree of unsteadiness of the flow; the size of the river; the depth and velocity of the flow; and the position of an observer relative to the ice bridge-over point.
Subject Headings: Freezing | River flow | Rivers and streams | Structural models | Hydrologic models | High-rise buildings | Fluid velocity | Ice
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