Design of Bridges for Ice Forces

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by Charles R. Neill, Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd, Edmonton, Alberta, Can,

Abstract: Sources of knowledge on ice forces and ice effects on bridges are listed and discussed briefly. Comments are made on experience of damage by ice and on the influence on bridge costs of design for ice. North American and USSR code requirements are outlined, and relevant ice conditions in rivers and lakes are discussed. Methods of estimating ice forces are given for various modes of ice action, taking into account substructure geometry and other factors. A summary of recommendations is given regarding design of bridges for ice forces.

Subject Headings: Bridge design | Ice | Standards and codes | Dynamic structural analysis | Structural design | Substructures | Geometrics | Bridge tests | Rivers and lakes


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