Design of Offshore Pipelines for Ice Environmentsby W. J. Timmermans, R. J. Brown & Associates of, America Inc, Houston, TX, USA,
Abstract: Design and installation of offshore pipelines in cold regions requires special care. Low ambient temperatures may cause increased friction losses in oil and gas lines due to wax crystallization or hydrate formation. Environmental conditions in these areas are described. Installation methods in cold regions are different from those normally used, to take into account presence of surface ice during most of the year. Protection of pipe against bottom gouging ice masses is essential; several methods are outlined.
Subject Headings: Gas pipelines | Offshore pipelines | Ice | Pipeline design | Friction | Hydration | Soil gas | Georgia | United States | North America
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