Calculation of Secondary Currents in Channel Flow

by Dan Naot, Visiting Sci.; Univ. of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, West Germany,
Wolfgang Rodi, (M.ASCE), Prof.; Univ. of Karlsruhe, West Germany,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1982, Vol. 108, Issue 8, Pg. 948-968

Document Type: Journal Paper


A model is presented for calculating the flow in channels with turbulence-driven secondary motion, with an emphasis on open channel flow. Algebraic expressions are derived for the Reynolds stresses in the momentum equations for the secondary motion by simplifying modelled Reynolds stress equations. A simple eddy viscosity model is used for the shear stresses in the logitudinal momentum equation. The kinetic energy k, and the dissipation rate ϵ of the turbulent motion appearing in the algebraic and eddy viscosity expressions are determined from transport equations for these quantities. The restricting influence of a free surface on the length scale of turbulence is accounted for by a special free surface boundary condition for ϵ. The resulting set of equations is solved with a marching forward numerical procedure for three-dimensional boundary layers. The model is tested by application to developed two-dimensional closed and open channel flow, closed square duct flow, and flow in open channels of various width-to-depth-ratios. Most features of these flows are simulated well by the model, including the reduction of the eddy viscosity near the free surface and the depression of the velocity maximum below the surface.

Subject Headings: Open channel flow | Boundary layers | Channel flow | Shear stress | Free surfaces | Two-dimensional flow | Reynolds stress | Eddy (fluid dynamics)

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