Sewers and Cities: France and the United States Comparedby Gabriel Dupuy, Prof.; Directeur de L'Enseignement, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, France,
Joel A. Tarr, Prof. of History and Public Policy; Dept.of Social Science and School or Urban Public Affairs, Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213,
Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1982, Vol. 108, Issue 2, Pg. 327-338
Document Type: Journal Paper
Abstract: The development and impacts of wastewater systems in France and the United States and their application for developing countries are discussed. Watercarriage technology was adopted in both nations because of the public health problems created by cesspools and privy vaults in growing urban areas and the nuisances generated by the development of piped-in water systems. Both nations experienced controversy over questions of sewerage system design and sewage disposal. French cities had fewer difficulties with drinking water pollution than American because they seldom utilized adjacent rivers for drinking water supplies. A major problem today in France is that of insufficient stormwater capacity. In the United States problems of water quality are of most concern. In terms of impacts, in both nations questions of waste disposal resulted in a larger role for the central government in local affairs, creation of a new sanitary ethos, and reliance upon technology for problem solutions.
Subject Headings: Sewers | Urban areas | Water pollution | Public health and safety | Water quality | Water supply | Drinking water | Developing countries | Wastewater management | Urban development | North America | France | Europe | United States
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