Sand to Sandstone: Foundation Strengthening with Chemical Grout

by Edward D. Graf, (M.ASCE), Pres.; Pressure Grout Co., South San Francisco, Calif.,
Edwin G. Zacher, (M.ASCE), Struct. Engr.; H.J. Brunnier Assoc., San Francisco, Calif.,

Serial Information: Civil Engineering—ASCE, 1979, Vol. 49, Issue 1, Pg. 67-69

Document Type: Feature article


A large school in San Francisco, built in 1930, was in need of structural rehabilitation to eliminate earthquake hazards. Founded on loose, windblown fine sand, the footings were subject to dangerous differential settlement due to shock densification and would be overloaded during seismic loading. Chemical grouting was used to increase the allowable bearing pressure and to reduce the volume of densifiable sand below the footings. The structure, foundations, investigation, recommendations, design and chemical grouting are described.

Subject Headings: Chemical grouting | Soil strength | Foundations | Sandy soils | Sandstone | Sand (material) | Soil grouting | Seismic loads | Footings | Soil settlement | Foundation design | Soil pressure | School buildings

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