Similitude in Free-Surface Vortex Formations

by Larry L. Daggett, (A.M.ASCE), Res. Hydr. Engr.; Hydr. Lab., U.S. Army Engrs. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS,
Garbis H. Keulegan, (Hon.M.ASCE), Res. Physicist; Hydr. Lab., U.S. Army Engrs. Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS,


Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1974, Vol. 100, Issue 11, Pg. 1565-1581


Document Type: Journal Paper

Abstract: Different fluids were used to investigate the effects of fluid viscosity and surface tension on the incipient conditions for vortex formation and on vortex size and shape. Experiments were conducted in two different sizes of cylindrical tanks with adjustable vanes at the perimetry to allow varying degrees of initial circulation to be generated at the entrance to the test section. The results of the experiments demonstrated that: (1) free surface vortex flow is affected by initial circulation and viscosity, but, for the ranges tested, is not affected by surface tension; (2) the coefficient of the discharge is a function of the Reynolds and circulation numbers; and (3) regions in which an air core will or will not form can be defined by the depth of flow, orifice size, and circulation and Reynolds numbers.

Subject Headings: Surface Tension (water properties) | Vortices | Free surfaces | Viscosity | Cylindrical tanks | Overland flow | Air flow | Free flow

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