Sustained Biaxial Load on Slender Concrete Columns

by Robert G. Drysdale, Asst. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg. and Engrg. Mechanics, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario,
Mark W. Huggins, (F.ASCE), Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario,

Serial Information: Journal of the Structural Division, 1971, Vol. 97, Issue 5, Pg. 1423-1443

Document Type: Journal Paper


A method of analysis was derived to predict the behavior of columns under various loading conditions. A mathematical model was formed by dividing the column into a number of smaller elements. Shrinkage, creep, and stress effects were considered for each element. A modified superposition method for determining creep under varying stresses was developed. To verify the method of analysis, 64 tests were performed on slender pinned end columns. The columns had a 5-in. square cross section and a height-to-thickness ratio of 31. The effects of magnitude and orientation of the end eccentricities, and various levels of sustained load were investigated. Types of tests included: short-term load to failure; sustained loading to failure; and sustained load followed by short-term loading to failure. Sustained loading was carried out in a controlled environment. The durations of sustained loading averaged over 7 months with a range of 12 hours to 2 years. Close agreement between similar tests and a good correlation between related tests were obtained. Predicted behaviors compared quite well with the test results.

Subject Headings: Failure loads | Load tests | Biaxial loads | Concrete columns | Columns | Load factors | Failure analysis | Creep

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