Stream Enrichment from Farm Operations

by Neal E. Minshall, (F.ASCE), Hydrologist; Agric. Engr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
Stanley A. Witzel, (M.ASCE), Prof.; Agric. Engr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
Merle S. Nichols, Emeritus Prof.; San. Chem., Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,

Serial Information: Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 1970, Vol. 96, Issue 2, Pg. 513-524

Document Type: Journal Paper


Data for a 3-yr period, 1967 to 1969, show the effect of applying manure at various times of the year on the plant nutrients lost in surface runoff. Two of these years, 1967 and 1968, probably represent the extremes with regard to nutrient losses from winter manure applications. The December to March runoff from rain and melting snow was about 3 in. in 1967 and 1969, but only 0.08 in. in 1968. A rain of 0.75 in. on bare frozen ground within 2 hr after the 1967 winter manure application produced a 100% runoff and high nutrient losses. Plots receiving no manure lost more plant nutrients, N, P, than those receiving manure which was incorporated into the soil immediately after application. Plots receiving winter manure lost nearly 3 times as much N and P and about 5 times as much K as the summer manured plots.

Subject Headings: Nutrients | Runoff | Winter | Rivers and streams | Agriculture | Snowmelt | Rainfall-runoff relationships | Frozen soils

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