Computation for Circulation in Stratified Lakes

by Kwang K. Lee, (A.M.ASCE), Res. Assoc.; School of Civ. Engrg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY,
James A. Liggett, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; School of Civ. Engrg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1970, Vol. 96, Issue 10, Pg. 2089-2115

Document Type: Journal Paper


A mathematical method is developed for calculating the steady-state, three-dimensional, wind-driven circulation in a large stratified lake of arbitrary bottom topography and shape on a rotating earth. The stratification is modeled by a two-layer structure in which the hypolimnion and the epilimnion are considered as two distinct layers with different densities and eddy viscosities. The thermocline location responds sensitively to the applied wind stress and has an important effect on the circulation velocity. An off-shore wind is the primary cause of the cold water up-welling near the shore due to the movement of the thermocline. The surface current velocity generally has a smaller magnitude and greater deflection angle than in the homogeneous case except near the boundaries. The volume transport is strong and in the downwind direction near the shore in the epilimnion and near the deep center in the hypolimnion.

Subject Headings: Computing in civil engineering | Water stratification | Nearshore | Steady states | Water circulation | Lakes | Arbitration | Topography

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