Impact of Spheres on Ice

by Yin-Chao Yen, Chief; Physical Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Cold Regions Res. and Engrg. Lab., Hanover, NH,
Fuat Odar, (A.M.ASCE), Res. Physical Sci.; Westinghouse Electric Corp., Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA,
Lynnwood R. Bracy, Physical Sci. Asst., U.S. Army Cold Regions Res. and Engrg. Lab., Hanover, NH,

Serial Information: Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 1970, Vol. 96, Issue 5, Pg. 641-652

Document Type: Journal Paper


An oscilloscopic method for determining the coefficient of restitution, e, by impact of spheres on ice was developed. Teflon, acrylic, nylon, and steel spheres having 1/4-in., 1/2-in., 3/4-in., and 1-in. diameter were used. The experiments were conducted at -1°C, -10°C, and -20°C, respectively. With the exception of Teflon spheres, the coefficient of restitution is found to decrease with the diameter of the sphere and increase as the temperature is lowered. All the data can be well represented by an exponential expression in terms of impact velocity Vi in a form of e = A exp (-B Vi) with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.91 to 0.99. The occurrence and extent of ice cracking were found to depend on the sphere material, diameter, temperature, and impact velocity.

Subject Headings: Spheres | Ice | Temperature effects | Steel | Correlation | Cracking

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