Horizontal Surface Discharge of Warm Water Jets

by Nobuyuki Tamai,
Robert L. Wiegel,
Gordon F. Tornberg,

Serial Information: Journal of the Power Division, 1969, Vol. 95, Issue 2, Pg. 253-376

Document Type: Journal Paper


Large thermal-electric power plants use an average of 1.5 cfs per Mw cooling water, with a temperature rise of about 10○ F to 20○ F, and flow velocities with a mean of about 7 fps; the resulting densimetric Froude numbers range from 2.5 to 12.5. A review of laboratory studies and prototype measurements, together with additional laboratory studies reported herein, indicate that this is in the range of transition from jet mixing to surface spreading regimes, with the possibility of a third regime existing for the lowest densimetric Froude numbers. Turbulence level in the jet, described by a Reynolds number, is of considerable importance in the transition region. It appears that the mixing by turbulence in the receiving water of the prototype is of equal importance to the mixing by the turbulence within the prototype jet.

Subject Headings: Water discharge | Laboratory tests | Turbulence | Hydro power | Power plants | Temperature effects | Froude number | Jets (fluid)

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