Ground Freezing in Construction

by Frederick J. Sanger,

Serial Information: Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 1968, Vol. 94, Issue 1, Pg. 131-158

Document Type: Journal Paper


Artificial ground freezing is a valuable aid, and at times may be the only means possible, for excavation. The soil becomes stabilized to give shear strength for a retaining structure and a water stop. Design includes strength and deformation of a viscoelastic material in a structure, and of heat flow in a material in which water changes to ice causing radical changes in thermal parameters. Examples show how the rheological parameters of strain, temperature, stress and time for typical soils are related. Techniques and design data are given for the structural design of a cylindrical cofferdam. Thermal parameters and techniques, with assumptions and consequent equations for design, are provided with examples of two typical soils, straight and curved walls, for computing time of freezing, temperatures, energy and refrigeration-load from which cost estimates may be made for a particular job. Construction practices are discussed, with special attention to the hazards of the ground freezing technique.

Subject Headings: Frozen soils | Parameters (statistics) | Construction management | Soil strength | Shear strength | Structural strength | Retaining structures | Construction materials

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