Evaluation of Accuracy of Precise Leveling

by M. Geisler,
Haim B. Papo,

Serial Information: Journal of the Surveying and Mapping Division, 1967, Vol. 93, Issue 2, Pg. 103-116

Document Type: Journal Paper


Three sources of errors in precise leveling are described: (1) Errors due to rod readings by estimation to 0.10 of the rod division and with the aid of a planoparallel micrometer; (2) errors of balanced bubbles or compensators (in automatic levels); and (3) Errors of rod plumbness in flat and hilly terrain. Expressions are presented for each source of error and for their combined effect. Formulas and graphs present mean square errors for single observations and their propagation in a series of observations. Investigation of the propagation of the plumbness of rods showed that it affects leveling in two parts: A systematic part depending on difference of elevation and a random part depending on the number of observations and the magnitude of the rod readings. The formulas were derived from laboratory tests and from practical work.

Subject Headings: Rods | Errors (statistics) | Leveling | Plumbing | Automation | Terrain | Laboratory tests

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