# Computer Program for Horizontal Circle Astronomy

*by*Lawrence A. White,

**Serial Information**:

*Journal of the Surveying and Mapping Division*, 1966, Vol. 92, Issue 2, Pg. 1-12

**Document Type:**Journal Paper

**Abstract:**Any astronomical observation taken on the horizontal circle of a theodolite may be represented by an equation in three unknowns, latitude, longitude, and azimuth. In practice, observations are usually made to determine only one specific unknown. Such an observation represents a special case of the general equation. By inserting zeros into the general matrix of the normal equations, all special cases can be covered. A single computer program based on the general theory can be used as a universal solution to all types of observations made on the horizontal circle. The same program calculates the variance-covariance matrix from which the mean square errors of the unknowns is obtained. Complete details of the basic theory and computer program are given.

**Subject Headings:**Computer software | Astronomy | Matrix (mathematics) | Azimuth | Case studies | Professional societies

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