Turbulent Mixing Phenomena of Ocean Outfalls

by Richard J. Frankel,
James D. Cumming,

Serial Information: Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 1965, Vol. 91, Issue 2, Pg. 33-62

Document Type: Journal Paper


The turbulent mixing process that occurs when sewage is discharged into sea water was studied in the laboratory for horizontal, 15○, 30○, 45○, and vertical angles of discharge. Conductivity probes were used to measure the continuous and instantaneous change in ion concentration of the discharged effluent as it diffused into the surrounding fluid. A statistical analysis was made of the mixing process and the effects of surface proximity, angle of discharge, depth-to-diameter ratio, and Froude number on the diffusion of the effluent were studied over a large range of values common to California ocean outfalls.

Subject Headings: Ocean engineering | Effluents | Diffusion (chemical) | Diffusion (fluid) | Sewage | Sea water | Probe instruments | Water discharge measurement | California | United States

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