British Practice for Grouting Granular Soils

by William E. Perrott,

Serial Information: Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 1965, Vol. 91, Issue 6, Pg. 57-80

Document Type: Journal Paper


Because of their heterogeneous nature, alluvial deposits that are to be injected must be investigated in detail. Permeability tests of a localizing nature are preferable. Many such tests have been carried at the site of the new Blackwall Tunnel under the River Thames in London. The tests showed sands, gravels, and silts to be present. The engineers selected a clay-chemical grout for the coarser layers and a cheap low-viscosity chemical grout for the finer layers. The grouts were injected from the pilot tunnels to form a grouted annulus through which the main tunnel has now been driven. Chemical injections strengthened the arch section of the annulus. Surface mixing stations were used to prepare separate solutions that were then mixed in correct proportions at the injection point. Penetration of the clay grouts was improved by removing the coarse fraction in hydrocyclons during preparation. Engineers in the control cabin on surface received data on pumping and pressures through electronic recorders. The treatment was completely successful in achieving the designed objective.

Subject Headings: Soil grouting | Granular soils | Tunnels | Chemical grouting | Clays | Coarse-grained soils | Heterogeneity | Alluvium | London | United Kingdom | Europe

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