Disintegration of a Turbulent Water Jet

by Tsu-Fang Chen,
John R. Davis,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1964, Vol. 90, Issue 1, Pg. 175-206

Document Type: Journal Paper


General equations for the continuous length and initial drop size of turbulent jets of water discharged from smooth pile exits and orifices were developed by dimensional analysis. Experimental results using photographic technique confirmed the validity of these equations and showed that the jet length is related directly to Weber number for fully developed turbulent flow. Comparison with laminar flow equations indicate that Weber's equation can be modified to describe the breakup distance of a turbulent jet, but that the use of eddy viscosity instead of molecular viscosity is incorrect. Mean equivalent initial drop size, expressed as a fraction of pipe exit or orifice diameter, increases with increasing Weber and Reynolds numbers. For the same Weber or Reynolds number, an increase in pipe exit diameter and an accompanying decrease in velocity results in a decrease in the ratio of mean equivalent initial drop size to pipe diameter. This suggests that turbulence intensity has an influence on the value of the ratio. Frequency, amplitude, and length of waves on the surface of the continuous jet were measured. Amplitude and wave length increase with distance from the pipe exit, whereas wave frequency decreases. Initial disturbance of the jet is predominantly due to fluid turbulence and surface tension forces.

Subject Headings: Turbulent flow | Jets (fluid) | Pipelines | Surface waves | Surface Tension (water properties) | Water discharge | Viscosity | Reynolds number

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