# Laminar and Turbulent Flow of Water Through Sand

*by*M. Anandakrishnan,

G. H. Varadarajulu,

**Serial Information**:

*Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division*, 1963, Vol. 89, Issue 5, Pg. 1-16

**Document Type:**Journal Paper

Discussion: (See full record)

Discussion: (See full record)

Discussion: (See full record)

**Abstract:**The flow of water through sands during turbulence is represented by v

^{n}=k'i in which v is the velocity of flow; i the hydraulic gradient; k', a coefficient of turbulence; and n, a turbulence exponent. Values of n and k' are obtained from a plot of constant head permeability tests on four sands, shown as log-log plot of velocity versus hydraulic gradient. For truly laminar flow, n equals 1. For sands with d

_{10}> 0.03 cms, the value of n is greater than 1, indicating turbulent flow. The value of n varies with grain size and hydraulic gradient. A plot of Reynold's number versus Friction Factor shows turbulent flow in one case of sand (d

_{10}= 0.03 cm) with Reynold's number substantially less than 1. A method is shown for conducting variable head tests for turbulent flow. The quantity of seepage through sand during turbulent flow can be calculated using the appropriate values of k' and n determined in the laboratory by the procedures outlined herein.

**Subject Headings:**Turbulent flow | Sandy soils | Water flow | Turbulence | Hydraulic gradients | Soil water | Sand (hydraulic) | Fluid velocity |

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