Studies to Determine Criteria for Outfall Design

by Rafael Sternau, Head; Coastal Engrg. Dept., Tahal Consulting Engrs. Ltd., P.O. Box 11170, Tel-Aviv 61111, Israel,
Menachem Libhaber, Process Engr.; Dan Region Wastewater Project, Tahal Consulting Engrs. Ltd., P.O. Box 11170, Tel-Aviv 61111, Israel,

Serial Information: Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division, 1981, Vol. 107, Issue 6, Pg. 1277-1296

Document Type: Journal Paper


A central sewage treatment plant for treating domestic and industrial wastewater of the Great Tel Aviv Area is to be constructed. The sludge produced during the modified biological treatment, including nitrification and denitrification in the same biological reactor, will be discharged into the sea through a 5 km long marine outfall, after 16 to 22 hours retention and 10 to 14 days sludge age. Extensive oceanographical, biological and physical studies have been carried out with the object of determining design criteria for the outfall and to obtain environmental background data on seawater, sea-bottom and sea-life. A data collection scheme will be run concurrently with the operation of the outfall in order to detect any changes in the marine and beach environments that may take place.

Subject Headings: Biological processes | Wastewater treatment plants | Industrial wastes | Sludge | Water pollution | Data collection | Sewage | Industrial facilities | Israel | Middle East | Asia

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