Buoyant Surface Jets

by Gerhard H. Jirka, (M.ASCE), Asst. Prof.; School of Civ. and Environmental Engrg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.,
Keith D. Stolzenbach, (M.ASCE), Assoc. Prof.; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,
E. Eric Adams, (A.M.ASCE), Principal Research Engineer; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1981, Vol. 107, Issue 11, Pg. 1467-1487

Document Type: Journal Paper


A combination of dimensional analysis, simple physical reasoning and data inspection is used to define distinct geometrical properties and mixing characteristics within the near field of buoyant surface jets. For deep stagnant receiving water, the jet has a transition length, a maximum penetration depth and a limited dilution capacity which is primarily met through bottom entrainment. These characteristics are found to scale with a densimetric Froude number based on kinematic momentum and buoyancy fluxes and a characteristic source length. A criterion for shallow water is developed based on observations of reduced entrainment; relationships for shallow water dilution and bottom attachment lengths are given. A criterion is presented to distinguish free and shoreline-attached jets in crossflowing receiving water, and a simple trajectory relationship appears to describe jet trajectories in crossflowing deep receiving water.

Subject Headings: Jets (fluid) | Surface properties | Dilution | Entrainment | Shallow water | Inspection | Geometrics | Physical properties

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