Endochronic-Critical State Models for Sand

by Roy Dangar, Engr.; Motor-Columbus, Consulting Engrs., Inc., Baden, Switzerland; formerly, Lect., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Bristol, Bristol, England,
S. Nuh, Research Student; Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Bristol, Bristol, England, and Lect., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of El Fatah, Libya,

Serial Information: Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 5, Pg. 951-968

Document Type: Journal Paper


Constitutive models are developed for representing granular material behavior under triaxial test conditions. The models are investigated for both unidirectional and cyclic straining. An endochronic formulation is used, together with critical state material constants and the nongrain crushing model is represented as independent of intrinsic time. A crushing model is also considered. A comparison is made between experimental results and equivalent theoretical results, for triaxial conditions, for a wide range of confining pressures and initial voids ratio. The computed unidirectional triaxial results are shown to follow the main trends of the experiment, and the model is thus recommended for application to static analysis, where large strains are encountered. For small strains, particularly of a cyclical nature, the models are relatively insensitive and further work is needed before application to a general nonlinear dynamic analysis of earth structures is possible.

Subject Headings: Material properties | Granular materials | Sandy soils | Triaxial tests | Strain | Dynamic models | Structural models | Constitutive relations

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