Site Factors Controlling Liquefaction

by Rafael M. Blazquez, Laboratorio Nacional del Transporte y Mecanica del Suelo, Madrid, Spain; formerly, Graduate Student, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.,
Zdeněk P. Bažant, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.,
Raymond J. Krizek, (M.ASCE), Prof. of Civ. Engrg.; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Ill.,

Serial Information: Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 7, Pg. 785-801

Document Type: Journal Paper


A finite element procedure for determining the dynamic response and liquefaction susceptibility of a deposit of saturated sand subjected to an arbitrary bedrock acceleration is developed. The method is structured in accordance with the generalized Biot constitutive equations for an inelastic two-phase medium, and it includes a law of the endochronic type to model the deviatoric constitutive behavior of the sand. The approach has the capability of accounting for: (1)Strain hardening and softening; (2)densification; (3)hysteretic and viscous damping; (4)the development of pore pressure due to volume change; and (5)consolidation due to internal pressure generation. The results reported in this investigation demonstrate that site factors, such as the shear resistance of the overburden, seepage conditions, nature of the loading history, layer thickness, bulk compressibility, and phase coupling, greatly affect the pore pressure increase in saturated sand layers subjected to a seismic excitation.

Subject Headings: Saturated soils | Pore pressure | Soil liquefaction | Soil compression | Soil pressure | Structural behavior | Constitutive relations | Site investigation

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