Thermal Structure of Cooling Ponds

by Gerhard H. Jirka, (A.M.ASCE), Asst. Prof.; School of Civ. and Environmental Engrg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.; formerly, Research Engr., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,
Masataka Watanabe, Sci.; National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; formerly, Research Assoc., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, Mass.,


Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1980, Vol. 106, Issue 5, Pg. 701-715


Document Type: Journal Paper

Abstract: The vertical stratification of cooling ponds is considered in a quasi-steady framework. Criteria based upon a nondimensional pond number are derived categorizing cooling ponds into the well-stratified deep pond type and into the partially-mixed or vertically-mixed shallow pond types. The well-stratified pond is characterized by an approximately uniform thin surface layer and two layer stratified flow theory is used to derive an equation for the layer thickness. An empirical expression describes the degree of vertical stratification in shallow ponds as a function of pond number. Comparisons with field and laboratory data are given.

Subject Headings: Ponds | Water stratification | Cooling (wastewater treatment) | Temperature effects | Frames | Overland flow | Stratified flow | Thickness

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