Frazil Ice Formation: A Review

by Tom E. Osterkamp, Assoc. Prof. of Physics and Geophysics; Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska,

Serial Information: Journal of the Hydraulics Division, 1978, Vol. 104, Issue 9, Pg. 1239-1255

Document Type: Journal Paper

Abstract: The problems associated with frazil ice formation are examined, the current state-of-the-art is reviewed, and recommendations for future research are made. No priorities are assigned to these recommendations. Future research should focus on obtaining heat transfer data, temperature measurements, flow measurements, physical measurements on frazil ice crystals (particularly frazil ice concentration), frazil ice nucleation processes, evolution of frazil ice crystals, anchor ice formation, forecasting the occurence of frazil ice, entrainment of frazil ice crystals in the flow and the resulting two-phase flow, adherence of frazil ice crystals to each other and to objects in the flow, granular growth in pans, floe producing mechanisms in rivers, and the initiation and development of river ice covers from frazil ice. The greatest need is for field measurements and field investigations of the preceding problems during periods of frazil ice formation in rivers.

Subject Headings: Ice | Flow measurement | Temperature measurement | River flow | Rivers and streams | Field tests | Data processing | Heat flow |

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